For clarification, I am refering to nerves and vasculature in the clitoris, not just leading up to it. My goal is to leverage social media support (so please clap and share) in order to get this anatomy added to OB/GYN textbooks and board exams, as direct appeals have not worked. The effect of this change would be improving female sexual medicine and protecting patients from preventable harm caused by surgeons’ ignorance of this anatomy.

The neurovascular anatomy of the clitoris has been published (as early as 1844). It also only takes scissors and a cadaver to know, as the nerves…


Even adult, trained scientists aren’t objective. Science is incredibly biased by culture and changes with culture.

Anatomy is the perfect example, as it’s one of the most simple, hard, objective sciences there is. Theoretically, it’s extremely difficult to mess up. And yet really smart people go to dissect an entire human body and omit clitoral anatomy. They’ll miss obvious 2 mm diameter nerves. No other major anatomy gets skipped like this. And often, amazingly, this is not even intentional. They genuinely won’t realize what they’re doing.

If culture can influence something as objective and concrete as anatomy, clearly it influences…


1,238 words describe male external genitalia. 538 words describe female external genitalia.

527 describe the penis. 85 words describe the clitoris.

7 figures illustrate male external genital anatomy. 2 figures illustrate female external genital anatomy.

Detailed anatomy of the penis, including nerves and vessels, is described. Detailed anatomy of the clitoris is omitted.

The only clinical remark about the clitoris is it may be too large.

Erection and ejaculation are described for men (additionally in sections on internal male genitalia). No mention of the role of the clitoris or other external female genitals in female orgasm or sexual response beyond arousal is made.


Risks to sexual function not discussed, surgical anatomy omitted, function of labia minora unacknowledged, use of “rejuvenate” is medical fraud, claims of causes of hypertrophy also unsupported, fraudulent.

Medscape claims labiaplasty is a procedure that “rejuvenates” the female genitalia. Yet there is no evidence of any positive correlation between age and labia minora size after puberty. Meanwhile, labia minoa are well known to shrink with menopause. Claims that labiaplasty is “rejuvenating” are fraudulent and misleading.

Most of Medscape’s claims regarding causes of labia minora hypertrophy are not supported by any evidence. The claim that sexual intercourse can cause hypertrophy is unsupported and fraudulent.


Anatomic detail for the clitoris, including nerves and vessels, is omitted.

This is a top 10 anatomy textbook for medical students according to this list.

In the “Pelvis” chapter, there is a subsection for “Male Genitalia.” There is no subsection for female gentalia. The implication is male genitalia warrants it’s own subsection, but female genitalia does not.


This textbook provides twice as much information on male external genitalia as female (even more if you consider the scrotum is covered in another chapter).

1011 words describe the penis.

103 words describe the labia minora.

145 words describe the clitoris.

Detailed anatomy of the clitoris, including internal structure, as well as the course of nerves and vessels in the clitoris, is not provided.

Keep in mind that all these same details can be covered for the clitoris, but they chose not to, due to a perception that it’s less important.


Nerves and vessels of the clitoris are omitted


Clitoral anatomy incorrect and incomplete

The nerves and vasculature of the clitoris are missing from this major anatomy textbook, published in 2020.

1. Figure 18.2

The clitoris and clitoral hood are minimized relative to other structures. The clitoral hood is 34% of the length of the vulva on average. Please show more average dimensions. The minimization of the clitoris and clitoral hood is a problem in nearly all illustrations in Thieme. Please correct.


As I’ve explained, there is a systemic omission of surgical anatomy from literature on female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS), which is indicative of surgeons operating blind. Omitting important surgical anatomy from coverage of surgical anatomy in literature on plastic surgery techniques is very unusual and indicative of an exceptionally low standard of care unique to vulvas.

This is the problem I’ve been trying to raise public awareness about, as well as solve. That is why I’ve published an anatomic study and convinced 18 textbooks to change. However, until there are training standards for female genital cosmetic surgery and until adequate…


On Medscape, 57 times as many words cover the penis as cover the clitoris.

If you are thinking there just isn’t much to cover about the clitoris, think again. Nearly everything covered about the penis can and should also be covered for the clitoris. In fact, there is a whole textbook on it (which gets ignored).

Ignorance of clitoral anatomy among physicans leads to real patient harm. I, along with many other women, have been harmed due to this gross systemic negligence.

Word count comparisons include all coverage in anatomy articles and articles on sexual function and dysfunction.

Clitoris

Word count…

Jessica Pin

Getting clitoral neural anatomy included in OB/GYN textbooks. It was finally added for the first time in July 2019. BME/EE @WUSTL

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